SO is used to show agreement with positive statements.

I’m tired.  – So am I.

NEITHER is used to show agreement with negative statements.

I didn’t finish. – Neither did I.


Confusing adjectives


Boring or bored?

We use adjectives ending in –ed to show how we feel about something:

I’m interested in history. I’m disappointed with my exam results.

We use adjectives ending in –ing to describe the thing which makes us feel this way:

History is interesting. My exam results are disappointing.



Confusing nouns


Nature, countryside, or environment?

Nature refers to all the things in the world that are not made or caused by people – animals, plants, storms, etc.

Countryside refers to land away from towns, with fields and trees.

Environment refers to the natural world in which people, plants and animals live.


Travel, journey, way or trip?

Travel is used to describe the general activity of moving from one place to another.

Journey describes going from one particular place to another.

Way refers to a route, a path, a direction or a distance in space and time.

Trip is used to talk about an excursion or holiday which is usually for pleasure.

images nature images countryside

Uncountable nouns


If a noun is uncountable, it has no plural form, and we cannot use it with a/an:

He bought new furniture for his flat.

Other common uncountable nouns include the following:

Stuff, information, accommodation, advice, damage, equipment, luggage,  knowledge, news, research,  scenery, transport, work, weather.

We can use some with uncountable nouns. To refer to a specific amount we can use words such as a piece of/a bit of in front of an uncountable noun:

A piece of equipment, a bit of advice

Say or tell


Tell  is always followed by a direct personal object. We tell someone something:

She told me she was a film star.

Say  is not followed by a direct personal object. We say something:

She said she was a film star.

If we use a personal object with say,  we must use to:

She said to me that she was a film star.

There are a few expressions where we can use tell without a personal object:

Tell a lie, tell the truth, tell a joke, tell a story, tell the time.